Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 63 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical, preferred ?; 38°N - 6°S, 100°W - 37°W (Ref. 55)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 67.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626); 57.0 cm FL (female); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 10.8 kg (Ref. 26340)
soft rays: 8. Snout long and pointed, mouth large. One of the upper pairs of canine teeth notably enlarged, visible when mouth is close. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Pectoral fins long, reaching the level of anus. Scale rows on back parallel to lateral line, at least anteriorly. Olive gray to brownish on upper back and sides, with eight narrow, pale vertical bars which may be faint or absent in large adults. A solid or broken blue line which may disappear with growth, runs under the eye.
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda (Ref. 26938) to Trinidad and northern Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Côte d'Ivoire to Equatorial Guinea (Ref. 10795).
Adults occur in shallow, clear, warm, coastal waters over coral reefs. Often near the shelter of elkhorn corals and gorgonians (Ref. 9710). Juveniles are encountered over sand bottoms with or without seagrass (Thalassia), and over muddy bottoms of lagoons or mangrove areas. Young sometimes enter brackish waters. Sometimes form resting aggregations during the day. Feed on fishes, shrimps, crabs, worms, gastropods and cephalopods. Considered a good food fish, it is marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 55). Maximum length for female taken from Ref. 3093.
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.01226 - 0.01628), b=2.98 (2.95 - 3.01), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .