Epinephelus adscensionis  (Osbeck, 1765)

Rock hind
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Epinephelus adscensionis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus adscensionis (Rock hind)
Epinephelus adscensionis
Picture by Wirtz, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 120 m (Ref. 36484), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 3589).   Tropical; 40°N - 24°S, 99°W - 9°E (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - 36 cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 4.1 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 31618)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Maxilla without scales. Preopercle with rounded, only slightly enlarged, spines at its angle. Opercle with 3 flat spines, middle one the largest. Pelvic fins shorter than pectorals and shorter than longest dorsal spine. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin. 2 or 3 dark saddles along base of dorsal fin and another on top of caudal peduncle. Tan with red spots on head, body and fins, spots becoming larger ventrally (Ref. 26938); characterized further by: body depth less than head length, 2.6-3.2 times in SL; head length 2.1-2.5 in SL; interorbital area flat or slightly concave; preopercle evenly serrate; smooth subopercle and interopercle; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils (Ref. 089707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda to the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and southern Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Ascension and St. Helena islands; dubious records from the Canary Islands, Cape Verde and South Africa (Ref. 1496, 1953, 6572) are discussed by Heemstra (Ref. 6512). Also recorded from eastern Atlantic from Sao Tome in the Gulf of Guinea and from the Azores (Portugal) (Ref. 089707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits rocky reefs. Usually solitary (Ref. 29). Feeds mainly on crabs (67%) and fishes (20%). At Ascension I., it feeds on juvenile Melichthys niger and young sea turtles. Difficult to approach (Ref. 9710). Its flesh is of good quality. Marketed fresh. Angling: Like other grouper, rock hind are caught by fishing at the right depth over an irregular bottom (Ref. 84357).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00821 - 0.02216), b=3.10 (2.96 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.