Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Etelinae
Etymology: Etelis: Greek, etelis, -idos = a fish, perhaps the fish Sparus aurata (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 90 - 400 m (Ref. 9821), usually ? - 45 m (Ref. 89972). Deep-water; 35°N - 32°S, 29°E - 142°W (Ref. 55)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 66.3, range 52 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5484); common length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9821)
soft rays: 8. Interorbital space flat. Maxilla covered with scales. Dorsal and anal fin bases without scales. Upper caudal lobe becoming greatly elongated with increased growth. Scale rows on back parallel with lateral line. Back and upper sides deep pink to red; lower sides and belly pink; fins pink to red.
Indo-Pacific: East Africa up to the Bashee River 32°S (Ref. 5484), eastward to the Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) and Lord Howe Island. The name Etelis carbunculus has been misapplied to this species by some previous authors.
Adults inhabit rocky bottoms (Ref. 30573) of the continental shelf and continental slope (Ref. 75154). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on small fishes, squids and crustaceans (Ref. 30573). Considered an important food fish in some areas. Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987). Highly valued for the quality of its flesh (Ref. 11888).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00615 - 0.01954), b=2.90 (2.75 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.12; tmax=20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .