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Microstomus kitt  (Walbaum, 1792)

Lemon sole
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Microstomus kitt   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Microstomus kitt (Lemon sole)
Microstomus kitt
Picture by Dolgov, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Microstomus: Greek, mikros = small + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 200 m, usually 10 - 150 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 72°N - 43°N, 26°W - 45°E (Ref. 54592)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 27.0, range 20 - 30 cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9988); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 6112); max. reported age: 23 years (Ref. 6112)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Small head and mouth. Body is oval. Skin is marbled and smooth. Lateral line almost straight, slight curve above the pectoral fin (Ref. 35388).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to the White Sea and off Iceland.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Lives most often on stony bottoms. Feeds on a variety of small invertebrates, but polychaetes seem to dominate. Apparently they do not feed in wintertime (Ref. 9900). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00467 - 0.01624), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.08-0.42; tm=3-6; tmax=23).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.