Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 71°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Snout is compressed and taller than the eye diameter (Ref. 35388) and anterior trunk rings not fused ventrally (Ref. 59043).
Eastern Atlantic: Vardø, Norway, Baltic Sea and the British Isles to Morocco. Also throughout the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Record off Ghana is still questionable (Ref. 4509).
Usually found along the coasts and estuaries at a temperature range of 8° to 24°C (Ref. 4944). Often associated with Zostera or other vegetation (Ref. 6733). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Spawns in summer (Ref. 35388).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00023 (0.00014 - 0.00037), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.56; tm=1; Fec=100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .