Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Batrachoidiformes
(Toadfishes) > Batrachoididae
(Toadfishes) > Batrachoidinae
Etymology: Batrachoides: Greek, batrachos = frog + Greek, oides = similar (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 9°N - 5°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body depressed and moderately elongated; head wide and depressed; mouth large; eyes dorsal; gill openings located at back of the head; dorsal with 3 spines; pelvic fins sub-jugular; dorsal and anal fins free from caudal fin; anal fin with 21 to 25 rays; lateral lines two, fewer than 52 pores in the upper line and fewer than 48 in the lower; photophores lacking around the anus; body reddish brown, with some darker dorsal-lateral spots along the second dorsal fin and numerous blotches, some brown and some white, especially on the head (Ref. 55763).
Eastern Pacific: Panama canal to northern Peru.
Sometimes enters fresh water (Ref. 9277).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1995. Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .