Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous; depth range 10 - 183 m (Ref. 5951), usually ? - 37 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 45°N - 29°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 94.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 12.0 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 52684)
Northwest Atlantic: Maine (rarely Nova Scotia, Canada) to northern Florida, USA.
Adults usually prefer hard sandy substrate where they can burrow; can exploit a broad range of lower and mid-estuary habitats including salt marsh creeks and seagrass beds, which usually have muddy or silty substrates , as well as sand flats (Ref. 26621). Occur in bays, lagoons and shallow coastal waters. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Exported fresh to Japan for sashimi.
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00604 - 0.01735), b=3.17 (3.03 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.77-0.84(?); assuming tm>=2; tmax=9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .