Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Nerophis: Greek, neros, nearos = youhtfull appearance + Greek,ophis = serpent (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 2 - 15 m (Ref. 6733). Temperate; 63°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2058); 30.0 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Anal, caudal and pectoral fins absent (Ref. 59043). Anal opening below front end of the dorsal fin, 28-33 body rings. Has a strait snout (Ref. 35388).
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco (excluding region from Denmark to Netherlands), also throughout the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Inhabit algal zone or eel-grass (Zostera) (Ref. 6733). Adults spawn in May - August . Feed on small crustaceans and fish fry (Ref. 35388). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Consistent paternity is ensured despite brooding of embryos on the outside the male's body. Events of cuckoldry by sneaker males is ruled out through genetic paternity analyses based on molecular markers (Ref. 81011). Each male carries eggs from a single female but females may deposit eggs on several brooding pouches (Ref. 81011).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00054 (0.00023 - 0.00123), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.05).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .