Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays) > Rhinopterinae
Etymology: Rhinoptera: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek,pteron = fin, wing (Ref. 45335). More on author: Evermann.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 70.0, range 65 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 28023)
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Costa Rica and the Galapagos Islands. Probably occurring elsewhere.
Found over soft bottoms, near rocky or coral reefs; also near reef drop-offs (Ref. 12951). Occasionally near the surface and may jump out of the water. Often in schools, sometimes associated with Aetobatus narinari, the spotted eagle ray (Ref. 12951). Feeds on benthic crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, 1995. Rhinopteridae. Gavilanes. p. 782-783. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766