Mullus surmuletus  Linnaeus, 1758

Surmullet
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Mullus surmuletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Mullus surmuletus (Surmullet)
Mullus surmuletus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - 409 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 62°N - 14°N, 19°W - 42°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 16.1, range 15 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 92286)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Head is less steep. Barbels longer than pectoral fin. Body with longitudinal red and brown stripes. First dorsal fin with dark markings (Ref. 35388).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Western Norway, English Channel (rare in North Sea) to Dakar, Senegal and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 07313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes. Spawning occurs from May to July, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4845). Marketed fresh and frozen for steaming, pan-frying, broiling and baking (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

A determinate spawner (Ref. 41706).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Randall, John E. | Collaborators

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
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Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
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Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
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Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00790 - 0.00961), b=3.12 (3.09 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.1-0.7; tm=2; tmax=10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.