Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 8.0 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - ? (Ref. 85713)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4832)
Asia: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China; probably Sri Lanka (Ref. 4832). Also reported from Iran (Ref. 39702), Afghanistan (Ref. 41034) and Bhutan (Ref. 40882).
Adults inhabit torrential hill-streams in shallow waters (Ref. 4832). They migrate to warmer regions of lakes and streams during winter (Ref. 40974). Used commonly by anglers as bait for Raiamas bola and Tor putitora. Herbivorous (Refs. 40948, 56237). Highly esteemed as food.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00434 - 0.02202), b=3.02 (2.84 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .