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Tylosurus acus melanotus  (Bleeker, 1850)

Keel-jawed needle fish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Tylosurus acus melanotus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Tylosurus acus melanotus (Keel-jawed needle fish)
Tylosurus acus melanotus
Picture by Shao, K.T.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Etymology: Tylosurus: Greek, tylos = callus + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1 m (Ref. 58302).   Tropical, preferred ?; 32°N - 28°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa (Ref. 3130) to the central and south Pacific. Eastern Central Pacific: oceanic islands such as the Revillagigedo, Clipperton and Cocos (Ref. 9279).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); common length : 115 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 24-27; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 22 - 24; Vertebrae: 90 - 95. Anterior part of dorsal fin with a low lobe, contained 10.5-13.3 times in body length; a distinct black lateral keel on caudal peduncle; caudal fin deeply forked. Juveniles have an elevated black lobe in the posterior part of the dorsal fin (Ref. 9682). Longer jaws with more numerous teeth and narrower caudal lobes than T. crocodilus (Ref. 37816).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in offshore and coastal waters. Feeds mainly on small fishes. Marketed mostly fresh. The flesh is of good quality (Ref. 9682). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Collette, B.B., 1984. Belonidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51), Volume 1. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3130)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = No PD50 data   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00138 (0.00062 - 0.00310), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.76 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.