Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Tylosurus: Greek, tylos = callus + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical, preferred ?; 32°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa (Ref. 3130) to the central and south Pacific. Eastern Central Pacific: oceanic islands such as the Revillagigedo, Clipperton and Cocos (Ref. 9279).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); common length : 115 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
soft rays: 22 - 24;
Vertebrae: 90 - 95. Anterior part of dorsal fin with a low lobe, contained 10.5-13.3 times in body length; a distinct black lateral keel on caudal peduncle; caudal fin deeply forked. Juveniles have an elevated black lobe in the posterior part of the dorsal fin (Ref. 9682). Longer jaws with more numerous teeth and narrower caudal lobes than T. crocodilus (Ref. 37816).
Found in offshore and coastal waters. Feeds mainly on small fishes. Marketed mostly fresh. The flesh is of good quality (Ref. 9682). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1984. Belonidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51), Volume 1. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3130)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00138 (0.00062 - 0.00310), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.76 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .