Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 30 m (Ref. 9840). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 105 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4832)
Indo-Pacific: from Pakistan to the Malay Peninsula.
Inshore species occurring on soft substrates to at least 30 m (Ref. 9840). Enters estuaries (Ref. 4832). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Flesh is used as food and skin is used to produce leather (Ref. 9840).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00508 - 0.03119), b=2.98 (2.75 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .