Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 85 m (Ref. 9840). Tropical; 10°N - 25°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 141 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048)
Has white spots and a white tail.
Indo-West Pacific: probably widespread, but known from Maldives (Ref. 9181), Seychelles (Ref. 10685), New Guinea, Micronesia, south to Australia.
Found in mangrove areas, also over sand or sand and rubble in lagoons near reefs to depth of 85 m on the continental shelf (Ref. 9840). Feeds on small fishes, bottom dwelling crustaceans, and large infauna (Ref. 9840). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), with histotrophy. Caught regularly, but in low numbers, by demersal tangle net and bottom trawl fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00508 - 0.03119), b=2.98 (2.75 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .