Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 183 m. Subtropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Disk diamond-shaped; round dark spot surrounded by pale ring on base of each pectoral fin. (Ref. 26938). No small pale or dark spots on upper surface of disk, but sometimes dark blotches. No scapular spines, 1 middorsal row of spines. Distance from ocellus to eye usually less than or about equal to distance between ocelli. Snout with a clear area on each side (Ref. 7251). Upper surface rich chocolate or coffee brown, translucent on either side fo rostral cartilage. Lower surface plain white (Ref. 6902).
Western Central Atlantic: Florida, USA and the Gulf of Mexico.
Occur from near shore to 183 m depth at temperatures ranging from 14 to 28° C but it is most common inshore of 91 m at 16-25°C. Young occur in shallow bays. Adults tend to live offshore (Ref. 26938). Feed mainly on decapod crustaceans and to a lesser extent on other benthic invertebrates and fishes. Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 6.3 cm long and 3.8 cm wide (Ref. 41359).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.58 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .