Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Calamus: Greek, kalamos = reed, cane (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 200 m (Ref. 26938). Subtropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 30 - 42 cm
Max length : 76.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3815); max. published weight: 10.6 kg (Ref. 4699)
soft rays: 10. Blue line under each eye. Corner of mouth and isthmus have orange cast (Ref. 26938). An irregular row of small molariform teeth inside and toward the front of the three usual rows of molars at side of upper jaw; dorsal profile of head evenly convex and not very steep (Ref. 13442).
Western Atlantic: Rhode Island (USA), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico southward to Brazil. Most abundant in the West Indies (Ref. 9626).
Inhabits coastal waters. Found on vegetated sand bottoms and more frequently on coral bottoms. Occasionally found at depths at least 180m (Ref. 09710) and 200 m. (Ref. 26938). Large adults are usually solitary. Feeds mainly on sea urchins, (including Diadema, Ref. 13442), crabs and mollusks. Excellent food fish (Ref. 5521).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9710)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01787 - 0.04446), b=2.90 (2.77 - 3.03), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .