Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 30 - 400 m (Ref. 5222). Deep-water; 35°N - 3°S, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 160 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3244); 100.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 107.0 kg (Ref. 3244)
soft rays: 8 - 9. With 8 or 9 regular vertical darker brown bars on side. The only grouper in the Caribbean with a pattern of regular dark bars (Ref. 26938). Further distinguished by the following characteristics: head and body buff; blackish brown pelvic fins; prominent blackish brown maxillary streak on the cheek along upper edge of the maxilla; depth of body contained 2.4-2.9 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital area; rounded preopercle angle, with enlarged serrae, 1-2 small serrae at lower edge, just in front of the angle; serrate interopercle and subopercle; posterior nostrils greatly enlarged, diameter is 4 or more times larger than anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, North Carolina (USA), Florida (USA), Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba, Yucatan (Mexico), Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Leeward islands to Trinidad. Eastern Pacific: Galapagos Islands.
A solitary (Ref. 26340), deep-water species reported from 100-400 m; juveniles sometimes in water as shallow as 30 m. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans, and squids (Ref. 89707). Virtually nothing is known of the age, growth, and reproduction of this species. Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Craig, M.T. and P.A. Hastings, 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with revised classification of the epinephelini. Ichthyol. Res. 54:1-17. (Ref. 83414)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00588 - 0.03095), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.6 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .