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Cephalopholis cruentata  (Lacepède, 1802)

Graysby
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Cephalopholis cruentata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Cephalopholis cruentata (Graysby)
Cephalopholis cruentata
Picture by Steele, M.A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory (Ref. 56524); depth range 0 - 170 m (Ref. 9710).   Subtropical; 36°N - 6°S, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 16.0, range 14 - ? cm
Max length : 42.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3708); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 13 years (Ref. 36271)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: body depth 2.5-2.9 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL (Ref. 089707); opercle with 3 flat spines, middle one the largest and upper spine longer than the lowest; pelvic fins shorter than pectorals; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin; has 4 contrasting spots, white or black, along body below dorsal fin base (Ref. 26938); color in market: pale orange, grey or brown with reddish spots; black spots on the upper body below the dorsal fin (Ref. 089707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Central Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida (USA), Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and the Caribbean; including the Antilles (Ref. 26938).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit Thalassia beds and coral reefs. In the Gulf of Mexico, they are found on rocky reef ledge in depths greater than 27 m. Solitary (Ref. 26340) and secretive, they usually stay near hiding places during the day. Prefer to remain within a small area of the home range of about 2,120 square m especially during the day (Ref. 56524). Are nocturnal predators, adults feed mainly on fishes, with preference on Chromis multilineata, juveniles feed on shrimps. Due to its small size, this is not a particularly sought-after species. Easily approached and fed by divers (Ref. 9710). Protogynous (Ref. 26938). Between 1995 and 2000, at least 10 specimens have been traded as aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Most change sex between 20 and 23 cm (ages 4 and 5), with sexual transition occurring immediately after spawning in August and September (Ref. 3092).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00632 - 0.01902), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.34-0.35; tm=3.5-5.5; tmax=9; Fec=260,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.