Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Stephanolepis: Greek, stephanos = crown + Greek, lepis = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 80 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 37°N - 7°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3790); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3790)
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, North Carolina (USA), and northern Gulf of Mexico to southeastern Brazil (Ref. 57756). Indo-Pacific (Ref. 26165).
More common in offshore areas, including floating seaweed and flotsam, and around islands. Juveniles are associated with floating seaweeds (Ref. 3790). Probably feeds on plants and small invertebrates (Ref. 3790). Generally considered as trash fish, rarely consumed (Ref. 3790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., B.B. Collette and B.E. Luckhurst, 1999. Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 4. 424 p. (Ref. 35505)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00923 - 0.02851), b=2.91 (2.75 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.34 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .