Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Sparisomatinae
Etymology: Sparisoma: Latin, sparus = a fish with a golden head + Greek, soma = body (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 32°N - 33°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3802)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 9. Adults of both sexes have distinct white spot behind base of dorsal fin; super males with red line from corner of mouth to below back of eye; and 2 or more jet-black spots on side above pectoral fin (Ref. 26938). The smaller color phase is brown or greenish brown with a dark blue cast on the back and sides, becoming red ventrally (Ref. 13442).
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), and Bahamas to Central America and Brazil; throughout the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 3802).
Inhabits coral reefs, young usually in adjacent seagrass beds. Often rests on the bottom (Ref. 9710). Feeds on plants. Solitary or in small groups. A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
A monandric species (Ref. 55367). Length at sex change = 17.5 cm TL (Ref. 55367). Forms harem groups composed of a single male and several smaller females (Ref. 55367).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00646 - 0.01697), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .