Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 40 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 39°N - 23°S, 99°W - 30°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.0, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798); max. published weight: 4.4 kg (Ref. 4699)
Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay, through the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean southward to Brazil. Including Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Found in dense aggregations during the day on patch reefs, around coral formations, or on sandy bottoms (Ref. 9710). Juveniles common in Thalassia testudinum beds (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans, small mollusks, and small fishes. Frequently exhibits a territorial 'kissing' display in which two contenders push each other on the lips with their mouths wide open (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh. Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Courtenay, W.R. and H.F. Sahlman, 1978. Pomadasyidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.01220 - 0.01793), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16-0.35; tm=2; tmax=13; Fec=64,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .