Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 60 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 33°N - 33°S, 99°W - 30°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 30.5, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 79.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 7.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 7 - 8. Scale rows immediately below lateral line oblique (Ref. 26938). Usual color phase dull silvery, the fins largely gray; no black pigment below upper margin of preopercle; the dorsal and caudal fins of subadults and the back above a line from dorsal base to lower margin of caudal fin are often blackish (Ref. 13442).
Western Atlantic: Florida Keys (USA), Bermuda, and Bahamas to Brazil. Found throughout the West Indies; absent in Colombia (Ref. 3798).
Inhabits seagrass beds, sand flats, coral reefs, and wrecks (Ref. 9710). Found in pairs or larger schools (Ref. 3798). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3798). Has been observed to nose into the sand to eat such subsurface invertebrates as peanut worms and heart urchins (Ref. 13442). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01780 (0.01149 - 0.02758), b=3.01 (2.88 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19-0.20; tm=3.5; Fec=800,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .