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Pomacanthus paru  (Bloch, 1787)

French angelfish
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pomacanthus paru   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pomacanthus paru (French angelfish)
Pomacanthus paru
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Pomacanthidae (Angelfishes)
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 100 m (Ref. 7379).   Subtropical; 30°N - 23°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626); common length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3797)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 29-31; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 22 - 24. Black, the scales of the body , except those at front from nape to abdomen, rimmed with golden yellow; a broad orange-yellow bar at pectoral absent; dorsal filament yellow; chin whitish; outer part of iris yellow; eye narrowly rimmed below with blue (Ref. 13442)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Bahamas to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: off Ascension Island (Ref. 7379) and St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in shallow reefs. Usually in pairs, often near sea fans (Ref. 9710). Feed on sponges, algae, bryozoans, zoantharians, gorgonians and tunicates (Ref. 9626). Oviparous (Ref. 240), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Spawning pairs are strongly territorial, with usually both members vigorously defending their areas against neighboring pairs (Ref. 38726). Juveniles tend cleaning stations where they service a broad range of clients, including jacks, snappers, morays, grunts, surgeonfishes, and wrasses. At the station the cleaner displays a fluttering swimming and when cleaning it touches the clients with its pelvic fins (Ref. 40094). Flesh considered good quality; marketed fresh (Ref. 3797). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35419).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

This species manifests apparent permanent pairing and monogamy. During most of the observation period, a single pair swam slowly in a side-to-side orientation at a height of 25 to 75 cm above the reef. No conspicuous courtship displays were evident, nor was there any evidence of sexual identity, i.e., the female was not obviously swollen with eggs. Shortly after sunset, the pair ascended in a broad, shallow arc off the bottom, traversing approximately 7 to 10 m while ascending to a height of 2 to 3 m. As the pair ascended, each angled its body slightly, with their venters in close proximity, if not actually touching. This position was held throughout the peak of the arc, with the pair diverging on the descent. Other pairs in the area were seen making similar arcing movements elsewhere on the reef at approximately the same time. It was difficult to see if there were gametes released in the event. There was no interference between pairs during spawning.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03090 (0.01696 - 0.05632), b=2.94 (2.78 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.