Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Holacanthus: Greek, holos = full + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory. Subtropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3797)
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), and the Gulf of Mexico to the northern islands of the West Indies.
Found usually in shallow waters of reef areas.
Burgess, W.E., 1978. Pomacanthidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (-0.30300 - 0.32300), b=3.04 (2.92 - 3.16), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .