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Kneria polli  Trewavas, 1936

Western shellear
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Kneria polli
Female picture by Mertens, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes (Milkfish) > Kneriidae (Shellears)
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335);  polli: Named after Dr. Max Poll, who first recognized the opercular apparatus of Xenopomatichthys to be a character of the mature male, and not generic (Ref. 42110).   More on author: Trewavas.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Tropical; 10°S - 17°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa: rivers Cuvo and Cubal in Angola (Ref. 11970), possibly also in other coastal rivers in Angola (Ref. 52193). Also in the upper reaches of the upper Zambezi, Okavango and Kunene in Angola and Zambia (Ref. 52193), and the Kafue in Zambia (Ref. 13332). Presence in the upper Congo river basin (Ref. 41590, 52959) considered questionable in Ref. 2970. Not yet captured in Namibia (Ref. 33857).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52193)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-11; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 10 - 12. Diagnosis: body depth 5.5-6.6 times in standard length (SL); head length 4.75-5.25 times in SL (Ref. 11970, 42110). Head width a little less than head depth at occipital region, 1.75-2 times in head length (HL) (Ref. 42110). Snout 3-3.4 times in HL; eye diameter 3.4-4.17 times in HL; interorbital width 2.75-3.4 times in HL; eyes lateral (Ref. 11970, 42210). Mature males with cupped outgrowth on operculum and a series of oblique laminae behind gill-opening (Ref. 11970, 42110), and without spines on head (Ref. 42110). Dorsal fin origin equidistant from tip of snout and base of caudal (Ref. 11970, 13721, 42110) or nearer mid-base of caudal than tip of snout (Ref. 7248, 52193), above (Ref. 42110) or immediately behind base of pelvic (Ref. 11970, 13721, 42110). Anal fin base equidistant from origin of pelvic and root of caudal (Ref. 42110), or a little nearer caudal (Ref. 11970, 42110). Pectoral fin length 5/6 of head length (Ref. 42110) or nearly as long as head (Ref. 11970, 42110). Pelvic fin as long as or a little shorter than pectoral (Ref. 42110). Caudal peduncle 1.9-2.1 times as long as deep (Ref. 11970, 42110). Body yellowish, with a series of dark spots, united by a narrower band, along lateral line or its posterior 2/3; a series of 3-5 round dark spots on either side of middorsal line in front of dorsal fin; sometimes a spot at origin of dorsal; fainter dark markings along back and side; upper part of head dark, lower parts of head and trunk pale; caudal fin spotted or clear, other fins clear (Ref. 42110). Dark spots at bases of pectoral, ventral and anal fins (Ref. 13721), but no dark spot at base of pelvic fins of type specimens (Ref. 7248, 52193).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .