Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Rastrelliger: Latin, rastra = rake + Latin, gero = to carry.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 15 - 200 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical; 20°C - 30°C (Ref. 54858), preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 18°N - 18°S, 93°E - 180°E (Ref. 54858)
Pacific Ocean: Andaman Sea to Thailand, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Fiji.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 17.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.5 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 168); common length : 20.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 168)
(total): 8 - 11;
soft rays: 12. Snout pointed. Maxilla covered by lachrymal bone but extending nearly to end of lacrimae. Interpelvic process small and single. Swim bladder present. Vertebrae 13 precaudal plus 18 caudal, total 31. Bristles on longest gill raker about 150 on one side in specimens of 12.7 cm, 210 in specimens of 16 cm, and 240 in specimens of 19 cm fork length. Anal spine rudimentary.
Found in estuarine habitats with slightly reduced salinities and in areas where surface temperature range between 20° and 30°C, forming schools of equally sized individuals. Batch spawning is believed to extend from March through September (Ref. 9684). Feeds chiefly on microzooplankton with a high phytoplankton component. Marketed fresh, frozen, canned, dried salted and smoked.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00596 - 0.01927), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.31 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.6-1.6; tmax=2).
Prior r = 4.76, 2 SD range = 1.89 - 11.99, log(r) = 1.56, SD log(r) = 0.46, Based on: 3 M, 38 K, 1 tmax, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .