Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 15 - ? m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 45°N - 5°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.5, range 21 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321); max. published weight: 680.00 g (Ref. 40637)
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, but uncommon north of Cape Cod (Harrison, pers. Comm.) to Argentina (Ref. 74796). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Namibia (Harrison, pers. Comm.). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Chile (Ref. 9321).
Inhabit sandy coasts and littoral pools but also occurs in muddy bottoms of brackish lagoons and estuaries. Sometimes penetrate rivers. May also be found on coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles are common in coastal waters and are known to find their way to estuaries and coastal lagoons. Growth in juveniles is moderate (30-40 cm in 4 years). Adults form schools (Ref. 9321). Feed on microscopic or filamentous algae and small juveniles of planktonic organisms (Ref. 9626). Reproduction occurs between March and August. Spawn several million eggs provided with a notable yolk (Ref. 35237). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). An important foodfish, it is marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 9321).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; bait: occasionally
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00946 - 0.01459), b=2.95 (2.91 - 2.99), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; Fec=>50,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .