Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Batrachoidiformes
(Toadfishes) > Batrachoididae
(Toadfishes) > Halophryninae
Etymology: Halophryne: Greek, als, alis = salt + Greek, phryne = toad (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); max. published weight: 400.00 g (Ref. 3132)
Indo-West Pacific: Indo-Australian Archipelago. Known from the Mekong delta (Ref. 12693).
Found in coastal reefs and among mangroves, sometimes in crevices or caves (Ref. 9710). Occurs in estuaries and fairly common in the tidally influenced part of the lower Mekong (Ref. 12693). Conceals itself in mud or debris and waits for prey to come by (Ref. 12693). Feeds on crabs, prawns, mollusks, echinoderms, and fishes. Stab wounds from spines can result to severe pain. Rarely trawled. Marketed fresh in the Mekong delta (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and R. Swainston, 1988. The marine fishes of north-western Australia: a field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australian Museum, Perth. 201 p. (Ref. 3132)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.56 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .