Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Triacanthidae
Etymology: Triacanthus: Greek, tres, tria = three + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; 10°N - 23°S, 73°E - 155°E
Indo-West Pacific: mainly found from Indonesia to north western Australia; also recorded from Bay of Bengal.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9804)
Spiny dorsal-fin membrane very dark between first and second spines, slightly to much less darker between second and third spines, and pale between third and fifth spines. Outline of head between base of first dorsal-fin spine and eyes somewhat convex in front of spine and then straight or slightly concave over eye (Ref 9804).
Inhabits sandy and muddy flat in coastal areas. Feeds on benthic invertebrates. Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Matsuura, K., 2001. Triacanthidae. Triplespines. p. 3905-3910. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9804)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.4 - 29.1, mean 28.5 (based on 524 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7578 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .