Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Gerreidae
Etymology: Eugerres: Greek, eu = good, well + Latin, gerres = a kind of anchovies; cited by Plinius.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal. Subtropical; 34°N -
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 22.0, range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3722); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3722); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 4699)
Western Atlantic: South Carolina to western Florida, USA (Ref. 26938) and the entire Gulf of Mexico to Brazil; absent from Bahamas and smaller islands in West Indies.
Inhabits shallow coastal waters and common in brackish waters (Ref. 36880), mostly over mud bottoms in mangrove-lined creeks and lagoons (Ref. 3722); often entering a considerable distance into freshwaters (Ref. 36880). Feeds on aquatic insects, crustaceans, micro-bivalves and detritus (Ref. 36880). Marketed fresh; processed into fishmeal (Ref. 3722).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and R. Vergara R., 1978. Gerreidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 2. pag.var. (Ref. 3722)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00541 - 0.02553), b=2.99 (2.80 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.2 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17-0.32).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .