Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 54393), usually 74 - 78 m (Ref. 54393). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636)
soft rays: 7. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 15-16 (rarely 15). Gill rakers 6-7 + 19-22 (total 26-28). Greatest body depth at or slightly anterior to origin of dorsal fin, 2.9-3.25 in SL; head length (HL) 2.8-3.1 in SL; snout length 1.65-1.9 in HL; cheek depth (lower edge of eye vertically to ventral margin of preopercle) 6.5-9.6 in SL; barbels 1.35-1.45 in HL; longest dorsal spine 1.5-1.75 in HL; pectoral-fin length 1.25-1.4 in HL, 3.55-4.2 in SL; pelvic-fin length 1.4-1.65 in HL. Pale reddish to bluish gray, the scale edges red, with a yellow stripe from eye to base of caudal fin just above lateral line (stripe may be red in fish from deep water); barbels white to pale yellow (Ref. 54393).
Indo-West Pacific: disjunct distribution: Japan to coast of Aomori Prefecture, Honshu, the Izu Peninsula, Kochi Pref., Ogasawara Islands and southeastern Taiwan; in the south from the Arafura Sea, the NW shelf and Kimberly region of Western Australia; from Geographe Bay northwards.
Apparently occurs in deeper waters in the warmer seas of lower latitudes (Ref. 54393).
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00959 (-0.15861 - 0.17779), b=3.11 (3.02 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .