Grammatorcynus bilineatus  (Rüppell, 1836)

Double-lined mackerel
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Grammatorcynus bilineatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Grammatorcynus bilineatus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Grammatorcynus: Greek, gramma = signal, mark + Greek, rhyngchos = snout.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 15 - ? m (Ref. 48637).   Subtropical; 31°N - 25°S, 32°E - 175°W (Ref. 168)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - 43 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9684); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 3.5 kg (Ref. 168)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-14; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 10 - 14. Mouth relatively small, upper jaw reaching about to middle of eye. Pectoral fins stout. Interpelvic process short and single. No prominent anterior corselet present. Swim bladder present. Vertebrae 14 precaudal plus 17 caudal, total 31 as in mackerel (Scomber and Rastrelliger).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: Red Sea eastward to the Andaman Sea. Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands to the northern coasts of Australia, including the Marshall Islands and Fiji. Often confused in the literature with Grammatorcynus bicarinatus.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits open water but often seen swimming near outer reef walls or deep clear-water slopes (Ref. 48637). Found mostly in shallow reef waters where it forms large schools. Feeds on crustaceans and fishes, particularly clupeoids (Sardinella and Thrissocles), but also other fishes such as Sphyraena and Balistes. Marketed canned and frozen (Ref. 9684). Its flesh is mild and pleasantly flavored, but brushed with lemon juice prior to cooking to remove the ammonia-like smell (Ref. 9684).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.69 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.