Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Parexocoetus: Greek, para in the side of + Greek, exos = outside + Greek, koite = hole (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 20 m. Subtropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - 13 cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 12 - 14. Body iridescent greenish blue dorsally, silvery white ventrally; dorsal black except for base and posterior rays which are pale; pelvic fins greyish, other fins transparent (Ref. 2797).
Indo-Pacific: widespread from East Africa, including the Red Sea (Ref. 26165) to southern Japan, Hawaii, the Marquesas, and Queensland (Australia); separate population in the eastern tropical Pacific (Bay of Panama). Western Atlantic: northeastern Florida, USA and the Bahamas to Brazil (Ref. 7251); common in Caribbean Sea and Lesser Antilles area; less common in the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf Stream and the western Sargasso Sea (Ref. 3720). Eastern Atlantic: Guinea to Angola (Ref. 4498).
Occurs in coastal waters (Ref. 9300), rare in the open ocean (Ref. 9839). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for considerable distances above the surface. 3-4 individuals aggregate during breeding (Ref. 47825). Carnivorous (Ref. 9137). Not important as food fish, but occasionally taken by fisheries.
Parin, N.V., 1996. On the species composition of flying fishes (Exocoetidae) in the West-Central part of tropical Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 36(5):357-364.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .