Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 36 m (Ref. 3277), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 55175). Subtropical; 42°N - 25°S, 100°W - 30°W (Ref. 55175)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 54.7, range 48 - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 94.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3277); max. published weight: 36.0 kg (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 23 years (Ref. 42149)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to southeastern Brazil, including Bahamas and many of the West Indies.
Adults frequently in channels or holes, over sandy flats, around reefs, and at times over mud bottoms; usually solitary or in small schools; smaller fish tolerate brackish water. Spawn offshore (Ref. 26938). During the summer, juveniles are found in large schools especially in the surf zone along sandy beaches. Adults feed on mollusks, crabs, shrimps, and small fishes; juveniles on benthic invertebrates. Excellent food fish (Ref. 9626). Highly esteemed game fish caught on light tackle (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03162 (0.01557 - 0.06423), b=2.93 (2.74 - 3.12), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=23).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .