Rhinoptera javanica Müller & Henle, 1841
Flapnose ray
Paging dalimanok,  Banugan,  Ogaog,  Paging bungi,  Paging palimanok,  Palimanok,  Pasa-pasa
Rhinoptera javanica
photo by Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO)

Family:  Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays), subfamily: Rhinopterinae
Max. size:  150 cm WD (male/unsexed); max.weight: 4,500.0 g
Environment:  reef-associated
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: off Durban, South Africa and ranging north possibly to India, Thailand, Indonesia, and southern China. Reported from Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964). Also in Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 637). Possibly Australia (Ref. 9862).
Diagnosis:  Double-lobed snout and indented forehead; jaws usually with 7 rows of plate-like teeth; no caudal fin (Ref. 5578). Brown above, white below (Ref. 5578).
Biology:  Found in bays, estuaries, and near coral reefs (Ref. 12951), over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 9710). Large schools with up to 500 individuals have been reported (Ref. 12951). Feeds on clams, oysters and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Lives to over 2 years in captivity (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Edible (Ref. 30573). Caught occasionally by bottom trawl, demersal inshore gillnet and tangle net fisheries. Utilized for its meat (Ref.58048).
IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable(A2d+3cd+4cd) (Ref. 115185)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Collected from Bolinao and Puerto Princesa markets (Ref. 47737). Also Ref. 280. In range Ref. 3965.

Entered by: Sa-a, Pascualita - 26.04.93
Modified by: Sampang-Reyes, Arlene G. - 06.04.10
Checked by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 19.10.95

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