Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål, 1775)
Humpnose big-eye bream
Bitilya,  Humpnose big-eye bream,  Babaan,  Batuan,  Bukawin gulat,  Bunggok,  Buyayohon,  Gapas-gapas,  Kamasuhan,  Katambak,  Kilawan,  Kuambal piring,  Kutambak,  Lagao,  Lahundon,  Luhundon,  Malaking-mata,  Mamimboyao,  Marilat,  Maya-maya,  Petilya,  Puti-mata,  Tabudlo
Monotaxis grandoculis
photo by Randall, J.E.

Family:  Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers), subfamily: Monotaxinae
Max. size:  60 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 5,890.0 g
Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 1 - 100 m, non-migratory
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and southeastern Oceania, north to Japan, south to Australia.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 10-10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-10; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 9-9. The inner surface of the pectoral fin base is densely scaled. Body is generally bluish-gray grading to whitish on ventral parts; lips are yellow to pinkish. The area around the eye is often yellow or orange. Fins are generally without distinctive markings. The membranes are clear or dusky but often reddish to yellow-orange. The base of the upper pectoral fin rays and the inner base (i.e. the body side) of the pectoral axil are black. The caudal fin usually has blackish rays contrasted against the paler membranous part of the fin. Small juveniles (often also in large 20-30 cm individuals) whitish on lower half and with three prominent black saddles separated by narrower white bars on upper half. A vertical black bar crosses the eye from above.
Biology:  Found in sand and rubble areas near coral reefs. Solitary fish are often encountered, but large adults usually form aggregations of up to about 50 individuals (Ref. 9710). Solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Nocturnal feeders (Ref. 9710). Feed mainly on gastropods, ophiuroids, and echinoids. Pagurids and brachyuran crabs, polychaetes, tunicates, and holothurians are consumed in lesser quantities. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775). Ciguatoxic in Marshall Is. (Ref. 171).
IUCN Red List Status: (Ref. 115185)
Threat to humans:  reports of ciguatera poisoning
Country info:  Known from Sibuyan, Romblon (Ref. 58652), Lanuza Bay (Ref. 104756), Sarangani Bay, Bongo Island, Moro Gulf (Ref. 106380), and Bantayan Is. in northern Cebu (Ref. 114734). Also Ref. 2295, 48613.

Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 10.11.90
Modified by: Casal, Christine Marie V. - 08.06.17
Checked by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 18.08.94

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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