Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849)
Kawakawa
Anturayan,  Barilis,  Burawon,  Kawakawa,  Tulingan,  Tulingan puti,  Aloy,  Bangkolisan,  Bansikol,  Bantala-an,  Barilis,  Boga-ongon,  Buga-ongon,  Bugaongon,  Bulis,  Hasa-hasa,  Katsarita,  Katsorita,  Katsot,  Mackerel tuna,  Mangko,  Manko,  Minanga,  Oceanic bonito,  Pagadparon,  Panit,  Pidlayan,  Pirit,  Purupondahan,  Reado,  Sobad,  Subad,  Talingay,  Tambacol,  Tangi,  Timbongan,  Tulingan,  Tulingan puti,  Tulingang puti,  Turingan,  Using,  Yaito bonito,  Bagoong tulingan
Euthynnus affinis
photo by Randall, J.E.

Family:  Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos), subfamily: Scombrinae
Max. size:  100 cm FL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 14 kg
Environment:  pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 200 m, oceanodromous
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: in warm waters including oceanic islands and archipelagos. A few stray specimens have been collected in the Eastern Central Pacific. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 10-15; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11-15; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 11-15; Vertebrae: 39-39. Swim bladder absent. No trace of vertebral protuberances. Anterior spines of first dorsal fin much higher than those mid-way. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Body naked except for corselet and lateral line. Posterior portion of the back with a pattern of broken oblique stripes. Description: Characterized further by dark blue to iridescent green on upper side with wavy dark bands; silvery white at lower sides and belly; sometimes with several dark spots just above pelvic fin; dorsal rays X-XV+11-15+8-10 finlets, dorsal fin separated by very narrow space; anal rays 11-15+6-8 finlets; pectoral rays 25-29; maxilla extending posterior to middle of eye; jaw teeth are small and conical, about 25-35 on each side of lower jaw; presence of palatine teeth, none on vomer (Ref. 90102).
Biology:  Occurs in open waters but always remains close to the shoreline. The young may enter bays and harbors. Forms multi-species schools by size with other scombrid species comprising from 100 to over 5,000 individuals. A highly opportunistic predator feeding indiscriminately on small fishes, especially on clupeoids and atherinids; also on squids, crustaceans and zooplankton (Ref. 9684). Generally marketed canned and frozen; also utilized dried, salted, smoked (Ref. 9684) and fresh (Ref. 9987).
IUCN Red List Status: (Ref. 115185)
Threat to humans:  reports of ciguatera poisoning
Country info:  Known from Hali-An Island, Mindanao (Ref. 58652) and Lanuza Bay (Ref. 104756). Also Ref. 168, 393, 9987.

Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 17.10.90
Modified by: Casal, Christine Marie V. - 07.06.17
Checked by: Agustin, Liza Q. - 16.03.94

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