Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Goldfish
Goldfish,  karpita,  Tawes
Carassius auratus
photo by Winter, T.J.

Family:  Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps), subfamily: Cyprininae
Max. size:  48 cm TL (male/unsexed); max. reported age: 41 years
Environment:  benthopelagic; pH range: 6 - 8; dH range: 5 - 19; depth range 0 - 20 m, potamodromous
Distribution:  Asia: central Asia and China (Ref. 7050) and Japan (Ref. 6390). Introduced throughout the world. Asian form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 3-4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-20; Anal spines: 2-3; Anal soft rays: 4-7; Vertebrae: 30-30. Body stout, thick-set, caudal peduncle thick and short (Ref. 1998). Head without scales (Ref. 39167, 1998), broadly triangular (Ref. 1998), interorbital space broad, snout longer than eye diameter, maxillary reaching posterior nostril or not quite to eye (Ref. 39166), barbels lacking on upper jaw (Ref. 39104, 1998). Lateral line complete. Dorsal and anal fins with serrate bony spines, pelvic fins short, broad and thoracic. Nuptial tubercles of male fine, on opercle, sometimes on back and a few on pectoral fins. Hybridize readily with carp, hybrids intermediate in most characteristics (Ref. 1998). Caudal fin with 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray osseous and serrated posteriorly; no barbels (Ref. 43281). Pigmentation: Wild-caught specimens, olive brown (Ref. 39168, 39104), slate olive, olive green, with a bronze sheen (Ref. 39104), silvery, grayish yellowish, gray-silver (Ref. 39169), through gold (often with black blotches) to creamy white (Ref. 1998); yellowish white or white below. Cultured forms vary through scarlet, red-pink, silver, brown, white, black and combinations of these colors (Ref. 39104).
Biology:  Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258, 10294) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578). Occur in eutrophic waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Ref. 59043). Live better in cold water. Feed mainly on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus (Ref. 59043). Goldfish lay eggs on submerged vegetation. Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae. They last long in captivity (Ref. 7248). Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172, 39174). Used as an experimental species (Ref. 4537). Valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539). Reported individual hooked by an angler in a lake in Poole, Dorset measured 40 cm (16 in), weighing 2.3 kg (Practical Fishkeeping, 2010).
IUCN Red List Status: (Ref. 115185)
Threat to humans:  potential pest
Country info:  Introduced in Trinidad River between Baguio and the Trinidad Farm School, Mountain Province by a Japanese and has become established (Ref. 280). Reported from Ambacan River at Butigan and Layog River at Balinsasayao, Leyte in 1993 (Ref. 7223); Taal (Ref. 12165, 81494,13446); and Gold Coast, Tondo Manila as specimen for living fish museum (Ref. 81820). Museum specimens collected in 1984 from various localities, LRS-84127 (Ref. 13460). This aquarium fish is propagated through breeding and is a secondary food fish in Laguna de Bay (also Ref. 80824).

Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 17.10.90
Modified by: Torres, Armi G. - 06.02.15
Checked by: Casal, Christine Marie V. - 23.06.05

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