Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790)
Spotted eagle ray

Pagi White-spotted eagle ray,  Bagtau,  Banagun,  Banugon,  Banugon,  Bulik,  Dalimanok,  Pagi-manok,  Paging dalimanok,  Paging paul,  Paol,  Tagabobon,  Taligmanok, 

Aetobatus narinari
photo by Field, R.

 Family:  Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays), subfamily: Myliobatinae
 Max. size:  330 cm WD (male/unsexed); max.weight: 230 kg
 Environment:  benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 80 m, amphidromous
 Distribution:  Atlantic and Eastern Central Pacific.
 Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0-0; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 0-0. An eagleray with a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck's bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth (Ref. 5578). Each tooth a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band (Ref. 26938). Numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; white below (Ref. 5578). Long whiplike tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. No spines on disk (Ref. 7251).
 Biology:  Commonly found in shallow inshore waters such as bays and coral reefs but may cross oceanic basins (Ref. 9862). Benthopelagic, found near land at 1-60 m (Ref. 58302). Sometimes enters estuaries (Ref. 6871). Swims close to the surface, occasionally leaping out of the water, or close to the bottom (Ref. 3175). Frequently forming large schools during the non-breeding season (Ref. 7251). Feeds mainly on bivalves but also eats shrimps, crabs, octopus and worms, whelks, and small fishes (Ref. 9862). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Flesh edible (Ref. 30573). Over 3 m disc width and up to 880 cm total length if the long tail is undamaged (Ref. 30573). Bears young in litters of 2-4 (Ref.58048,Ref. 26938). Tail used as a decorative item (Ref. 27550). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl, inshore gillnet and, to a lesser extent, demersal longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat and cartilage (Ref.58048).
 IUCN Red List Status: Near Threatened  (Ref. 96402)
 Threat to humans:  traumatogenic
 Country info:  Known from Siargao Island (Ref. 58652). In Compagno et al. 2005 (Ref. 47737) identity of specimens collected needed further verification; in the synonym of Aetobatus ocellatus in White et al., 2010 (Ref. 84291). In range Ref. 2334, 2858.

 Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 17.10.90
 Modified by: Bailly, Nicolas - 23.01.17
 Checked by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 23.10.95

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