Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 58302), usually 40 - 200 m (Ref. 3197)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred ?; 54°N - 46°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and Bermuda to approximately Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Appears to be absent from the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: St. Helena, Ascension, Cape Verde, and Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 7097); Azores and Madeira (Ref. 4233). Indian Ocean: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Seychelles, Mascarenes, South Africa, and Sri Lanka (Ref. 3287). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and Revillagigedo Island to Ecuador (Ref. 9283).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 27 - 31. This species is characterized by the following: D VIII+I,31-36+1; A II+I,27-30+1; lateral line scales, curved 58-75 and without scutes, straight 14-29 with 24-40 scutes, total 110-137; gill rakers 10-13 + 34-38; rear end of upper jaw moderately rounded and slanted anteroventrally; no teeth on upper jaw; interorbital scales usually extending to above front margin of the pupil; color bluish green and slivery below; caudal fin yellow-green and dorsal fin lobe sometimes dark distally; with a small, black opercular spot (Ref. 3197, 11228).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 26235)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5010 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.0 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8)
Low vulnerability (20 of 100)