Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9893)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 1602)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 32°N - 32°S
soft rays: 48 - 55. Eyes on right side. Dorsal and anal fins separate from caudal fin; pectoral fins absent; pelvic fins unequal, the right one with an elongated base and attached posteriorly to genital papilla (Ref. 9893). Series of toxic glands along the bases of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, their pores visible (Ref. 9893). Reddish brown, densely spotted on head; body and fins of ocular surface also with spots of various sizes and shapes, bordered by a dark rim and some with a blackish spot on center (Ref. 9893).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5156 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.1 ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100)