Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 330 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. published weight: 150.0 kg (Ref. 11228)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 100 - 110 cm
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 500 m (Ref. 37816), usually 20 - 60 m (Ref. 30573)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 41°N - 36°S, 25°E - 77°W
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan, Micronesia, tropical Australia and Lord Howe Island. Eastern Pacific: known only from oceanic islands (Cocos and the Galapagos) but because of sheer number, individuals may colonize the Central America mainland (Ref. 28023). More widely known as Taeniura melanospila Bleeker 1853, a junior synonym based on the description of a juvenile specimen.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
A large stingray with a circular disc, no thorns, a black and white mottled upper surface, and a deep and prominent ventral skin fold that extends to the tail tip (Ref. 6871).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.2 ±0.69 se; Based on food items.
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=7)
Very high vulnerability (77 of 100)