Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 354 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 170 - ? cm
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 90 m (Ref. 106604), usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 1602)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959), preferred ?; 41°N - 30°S, 32°E - 169°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to New Caledonia and Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales, Australia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Also from Persian Gulf (Ref. 247).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 0. Head with 5 small gill slits, the last three behind pectoral fin origin; nostril close to front of snout, with short barbels and nasoral grooves connecting them with the mouth (Ref. 4832).Very long caudal fin, almost as long as the rest of the body, with a deep subterminal notch but with the lower lobe hardly developed (Ref.13575, 6871). Yellow-brown with dark brown spots (Ref. 391), young black with yellow bars (Ref. 5578). Adults with longitudinal skin ridges which are lacking in young (Ref. 391). Juveniles smaller than about 70 cm, markedly different; dark with white bars and spots; pale ventrally (Ref. 6781). Pectoral fins large and broadly rounded (Ref. 6871).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.1 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100)
Very high vulnerability (77 of 100)