Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4787); max. published weight: 17.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 64 - ? cm
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 150 m (Ref. 9710)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 34°N - 36°S, 99°E - 174°W (Ref. 5222)
Western Pacific: southern Japan to southern Queensland and east to Fiji and the islands of Micronesia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Record from Western Australia in the Indian Ocean is dubious. Replaced by Epinephelus flavocaeruleus in the Indian Ocean (Ref. 37816).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 8. Juveniles are mostly yellow becoming gray with dark spots anteriorly. The gray area increases with increasing size until only the fins remain yellow on individuals of 15 to 20 cm (Ref. 37816).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 1602)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.1 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100)