Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 76.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3467); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 40637)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 90102)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred ?; 43°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumtropical. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Argentina (Ref. 36453). Eastern Atlantic: west coast of tropical Africa (Ref. 3592). Eastern Pacific: Guatemala to Chile (Ref. 9068); probably in Mexico (Ref. 9318). Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique and South Africa (Ref. 4421). Recently recorded from Reunion (Ref. 53568).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 47 - 53. Rudimentary pelvic spine disappears in large specimen (Ref. 36453). Snout convex in adults (Ref. 1602). Sandy to grey with small brown spots above; soft dorsal and anal fins pale yellowish to brownish; caudal membrane blackish brown (Ref. 4421).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5625 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100)