Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3678); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 8.7 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 31 years (Ref. 82366)
Length at first maturity
Lm 57.0  range ? - ? cm
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 120 m (Ref. 9710)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 16°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060), preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 39°N - 35°S, 26°E - 134°W (Ref. 54571)
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Samoa and the Line Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. Has dispersed into the eastern Mediterranean (off Lebanon) via the Suez Canal but not well established there.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 7 - 8. Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed. Scale rows on back more or less parallel to lateral line, or parallel below spinous part of dorsal fin and sometimes rising obliquely posteriorly, or rarely with entirely oblique rows. Generally greenish brown on back, grading to reddish on sides and ventral parts. Trawl specimens from deep water frequently are reddish with dark scale centers and white scale margins, giving a reticulated appearance. Juveniles with a series of about eight whitish bars crossing sides, and 1 or 2 blue lines across cheek. (Ref. 37816). Dorsal greenish brown, ventral white or greenish grey, sides reddish; bars 8 white and streaks 2 blue across cheeks (in juveniles). Body depth 2.3-2.7 in SL. Preopercular notch poorly developed. Dorsal scale rows parallel to LL. (Ref. 90102).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.19; tmax=18)
High vulnerability (60 of 100)