Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 153 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84291); max. published weight: 200.0 kg (Ref. 89467)
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89467), usually 20 - 25 m (Ref. 89467)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?
Indo-West Pacific: probably wide ranging in the tropical and subtropical zones.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
This large species is distinguished by the following characters: dorsal surfaces with a dark greenish grey base coloration, variably white spotted, rarely ocellated; different NADH2 gene structure; relatively long tail with mean total length 281% DW, mean anterior cloaca to tail tip 230.2% DW; stinging spines relatively long with mean length of first spine 9.7%DW; teeth plates are in a single row, those in the lower jaw chevron-shaped; pectoral fin radials about 102-116, excluding proterygial radials anterior of eyes; 99-101 total vertebral centra, including synarcual (Ref. 84291).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5625 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100)
High vulnerability (61 of 100)