Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 50.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9990); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 9990)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 300 m (Ref. 27000), usually 3 - 35 m (Ref. 40849)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred ?; 33°N - 32°S, 119°W - 124°W
Circumglobal in tropical and tropically influenced seas. Western Atlantic: continental waters from off Florida to Flower Garden Reef off Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; Caribbean islands and along the coast of South America to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: eastern and mid Atlantic islands from Madeira to St. Helena; not recorded from African continental waters. Indo-Pacific: South and eastern Africa (excluding the Red Sea) eastward in island habitats through the central Pacific. Eastern Pacific: island habitats from off Baja California to the Galapagos; probably uncommon along coast of Mexico, Central and South America, questionably to Chile.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 13 - 14. Silvery pink, mottled red or solid red in color; median fins with faint dark dots. Pelvic fins dusky or pale and without distinct spots (Ref. 4328). Section of preopercle behind canal striated and without scales (Ref. 26938).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.6 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100)