Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); max. published weight: 2.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 50 m (Ref. 9680), usually 3 - 20 m (Ref. 40849)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred ?; 35°N - 31°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55213)
Circumtropical. Eastern Pacific: San Diego, California, USA to Chile, including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 37955). Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Massachusetts (USA), and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: 30°N to 23°S (Ref. 6951). Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea to Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius (Ref. 33390). The reports in the Mediterranean Sea are doubtful (Ref. 50345).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 14 - 16. Body robust; teeth united in each jaw but without a central division; body covered with long, sharp spines, folded backwards when body not inflated; 16 to 20 spines between snout and dorsal fin; dorsal region of caudal peduncle spiny; back, flanks and fins light brown with numerous dark spots; belly spiny (Ref. 55763). Spines long. Body grayish tan, with small black spots, but no large dark blotches. Belly white, surrounded by dusky ring (Ref. 26938). About 20 spines in an approximate row between snout and dorsal fin (Ref. 13442).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5313 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.7 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax>10; preliminary K=0.12)
Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100)