ACP-EU Training


Ali D. Mohamed

 Lake Tanganyika: Kigoma, Tanzania and Mpulungu, Zambia
12 December 1999 to 8 January 2000


The trip was carried out in the context of the ACP-EU project on “Strengthening fisheries and biodiversity management in ACP countries”.  The primary objective was to document and photograph the rich fish diversity of Lake Tanganyika with the help of a visiting ichthyologist, Dr. Tyson R Roberts.  Photos taken during the trip were to enrich FishBase, which lacked colour pictures of Lake Tanganyika fishes.

To further promote the goals and objectives of the project, the trip was also to disseminate information about the project to a wider group of fisheries practitioners and establish functional networks among fisheries scientists and managers in the region.  Another objective was, therefore, to foster collaboration and partnership so as to facilitate the sharing of experiences for improved aquatic resources management in the region.

The trip was very productive, with over 150 endemic species of the lake photographed and voucher specimens preserved (Appendix II).  The preserved specimens (several per species) were formally released to the project by the respective fisheries departments of the two countries visited viz. Tanzania and Zambia.  Subsequently, the node handed over the collection to the National Museum of Kenya’s Ichthyology department.  Through this effort, NMK’s collections have expanded and the institution today holds the largest fish collection in the region including fishes of Lake Tanganyika.

The trip also afforded a chance to interact with and explain the ACP-EU project to scientists and managers who did not participate in the training programmes.   Both in Kigoma, Tanzania and Mpulungu, Zambia I got an opportunity to introduce the project and FishBase to fisheries officials, who were impressed by the database and promised to collaborate towards improving the information in FishBase about their area. The visit also provided an opportunity to familiarize with other initiatives in the lake region especially the Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project (LTBP).


Trip Itinerary

12/13 December 1999          Travel Nairobi – Kigoma         
13 – 15 December 1999        Kigoma, Tanzania
15 – 17 December 1999        Boat travel to Mpulungu, Zambia
31 Dec to 2 January 2000      Boat travel to Kigoma, Tanzania
2 – 7 January 2000                Kigoma, Tanzania
7/8  January 2000                  Travel Kigoma - Nairobi             

Prelude to the Trip

The trip was born following the visit to the National Museum of Kenya (NMK) by Dr. Tyson Roberts, a renowned freshwater ichthyologist.  Tyson visited NMK towards the end of October 1999, primarily in the hope of studying fossil fishes of Lake Turkana.  He is currently based in Bangkok, Thailand, where he extensively worked on the Asian freshwater fauna especially the Mekong River fishes, but has in the past studied the African freshwater fauna.  His visit was to study fossil fishes of Lake Turkana, only to learn upon arrival, that the subject had already been well studied and reported on.  As a substitute plan, he settled for a visit to Lake Tanganyika to collect information that would contribute towards the revision of his earlier paper on the “ Geographic distribution of African freshwater fishes” Zool. J. Limm. Soc. 57 (4): 249-319.

Tyson was travelling on a tourist visa, and visit for scientific research require government approval.  Thus, he sought assistance from the ACP-EU regional project based at the NMK.  In our discussions, it emerged that Tyson’s work also included fish photography and has over the years accumulated large collection of fish pictures.  He was aware of FishBase, but was reluctant to contribute his photo collections.  In an effort to persuade him, I demonstrated the growth of the database including a run through FishBase photos.  He was impressed by the tremendous development of FishBase since its early years, and was willing to reconsider his position.  To further establish the convenience of the database, I used the ecosystem tables where information on Lake Tanganyika fishes could be accessed at the touch of a button, although the fish pictures were mainly illustrations.

Having won Tyson's willingness to contribute towards the documentation of the region’s fish fauna by contributing fish pictures to FishBase, it seemed reasonable to facilitate his travel.  For the work to become a collaborative effort, it was felt that I should accompany him in the visit.  However, since I was scheduled to leave for Manila for two weeks from 13th November, we agreed to link up on my return.  In the meantime, the node provided necessary assistance by contacting relevant authorities in the respective countries. The ichthyology department of the NMK also provided the preservative – formaldehyde - and storage containers for the specimen to be collected.  While in Manila, the trip was discussed with Rainer and Michael who agreed that I join Tyson on return.

The trip 12 - 13 December 1999

I left Nairobi for Kigoma on 12 December and after a night in Dar-es-salaam, proceeded to Kigoma the next day. Air Tanzania operates a twice-weekly flight to Kigoma from Dar on Mondays and Fridays, and because of connection times, one needs to be in Dar a day earlier.  For the trip, I equipped myself with a camera and forty rolls of 35mm Fuji Provia slide films to be shared between Tyson and myself.

The flight to Kigoma on the eastern shores of the lake takes three hours from Dar. Kigoma, a small town of approx. 40,000 people, currently hosts over 400,000 refugees from the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (D R Congo) and Burundi.

Kigoma 13 - 15 December 1999.

On arrival at the Kigoma airstrip, I was met by Tyson who quickly briefed me on the work accomplished in the last four weeks since his arrival.  About 70 different species were photographed and voucher specimens preserved.  Six (6) species of catfishes have also been skeletonised for comparison with the catfishes of Asia and Latin America.  The fisheries department cooperated well with him, but raised concerns into the second week of his stay.  The situation was, however, normalized by an e-mail message I sent soon after arriving from Manila to the effect that I was joining him immediately.

A matter of great concern to him though, was my earlier expressed decision not to join him for an extended period.  He explained that it was necessary to extend the stay to allow for a visit to Mpulungu, Zambia on the southern tip of the lake.  He argued that since most of the easily available species in Kigoma area were already photographed, there was little more to be accomplished in Kigoma.  If I was not joining him, he too had to forgo the trip to the south, thereby missing the opportunity to fully document the fauna of the lake.  Under the circumstances, we settled for a quick visit and make the best in the shortest time possible.  Thus, our first stop from the airstrip was the Kigoma harbour where we booked the next boat to Mpulungu.

Boat services provide the best communication link for towns and villages along the lake.  Many villages are in fact only accessed by the use of boats.  Two commercial boats – Mwongozo and Liemba - operated by Tanzanian Railways Corporation, Marine Division, have in the past linked the four riparian countries (Burundi, D R Congo, Tanzania and Zambia).  However, since the eruption of the war in the D R Congo and the instability in Burundi, boat services have been disrupted and currently limited to Tanzania and Zambia.   Mwongozo, the boat in service at the time of the trip, leaves for Mpulungu every Wednesday and the next schedule was on 15 Dec.  We secured the boat confirmation and proceeded to the NORAD guesthouse where we were booked.

At the guesthouse, I had brief introduction on the preserved fish specimens.  The specimens in formalin, were in containers of different sizes.

After being shown around, I got a quick introduction into the art of fish photography.  The quality of a picture is influenced by light intensity and specimen preparation.  For good outcome, adequate lighting is necessary, but reflections and glares should be avoided.  As such the best times of the day to take pictures are usually in the early mornings before the sun gets too bright or late afternoons.  Cloudy intervals are also good as the cloud cover minimizes reflections.

While light is an important factor, it is also essential to capture as many details of the fish as possible.  This requires the specimen to be well spread out in order to reveal most features.  For the specimen preparation, fins are wetted in full strength formalin and stretched out preferably with small pins on a styrofoam board.  Once the fins have been properly spread, the whole specimen is left to stiffen in diluted formalin. This is necessary to avoid the specimen sagging when mounted for picture taking.  After the specimen hardens, it is carefully wiped dry with a soft tissue to minimize any glare that may result from the wet body. The hardened and dried specimen is then positioned against appropriate background ready for the camera.

Another important consideration in fish photography is the need to complete the preparation processes as fast as possible, as fish tend to lose colour rapidly after dying.  This is especially true for the blue and purple coloured fishes.  Under field conditions, it has been shown that keeping the fish cold in ice can prolong the stay of the colours.

Day Two - Kigoma

Having had a good introduction on the task ahead, the first full day in Kigoma (14 Dec), started with visits to fish markets.  First to be visited was Kitonga landing site about 10 km away from Kigoma.  The market specializes on herrings - Stolothrissa tanganyikae and Limnothrissa miodon - or Dagaa as it is called locally. Dagaa fishery is one of the major fishing activity in the lake.  Fishermen use powerful lamps at night to attract the Dagaa.  Kitonga market was busy centre with traders from Burundi, D R Congo and Zambia who come to buy sun-dried Dagaa, a delicacy in the region.

  The next stop was Mwanga market about 3 km from Kigoma.  At Mwanga, smoked megabuka or Luciolates stappersi was the main fish, but some tables sold several Barbus and Tilapia species from the Malagarasi river.  From Mwanga we proceeded to Ujiji beach and Buzibazeba markets. Ujiji is famed as the village where David Livingstone (explorer and missionary) lived for three years before Stanley Burton sent from England by the Chuch Missionary Society traced him to the village.  Fish species at both markets were more diverse than in the earlier markets, and included Kuhe or Boulengerochromis microlepis, Kihumbe, Ngege, Kavungwe and Singe (see Appendix I). On the way back to Kigoma, we stopped at the Livingstone memorial stone that commemorates the site where Stanley met Livingstone.

 From each market, we collected few fish species, and back at the NORAD guesthouse, it was time to put to test the theory on fish preparation and photography.  Thus, specimens were carefully spread out and later photographed and preserved.

 In the afternoon, we visited the Fisheries Department and Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI), but most people had left for the day.  However, the Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project (LTBP) offices located in the same compound, were still open and there I met Prof. Ntakimazi (participant from Burundi) who was attending a project meeting with other members of the LTBP from the D R Congo and Tanzania. Prof. Ntakimazi had the ACP project computer with him. He has so far not encountered any difficulties in the use of FishBase, which he reckons has been very useful especially in his tasks within LTBP.   He has, however, not been able to share the information with others essentially due to his busy schedules. We discussed possibility of a national workshop in Burundi, and agreed to organize a session at his institute soonest the security situation improves in Bujumbura.

 The LTBP has similar goals as the ACP-EU project, though in a limited coverage and therefore, the two projects could compliment each other.  The project aims at developing a regional management plan for pollution control, conservation, and maintenance of biodiversity.  The plan would be developed after a series of socio-economic and environmental studies into the complex issues affecting the lake and its immediate environs.  It is hoped that through the efforts of Prof. Ntakimazi who is member of both the LTBP and the ACP-EU projects, it will be possible to share the outcomes of the studies for inclusion into FishBase.

 Mwongozo – The Boat Trip Wed 15th  December 1999

 The boat for Mpulungu leaves Kigoma every Wednesdays arriving in Mpulungu the next Friday. We checked into the boat (Mwongozo) at 2.00 pm, and sailed off at 6.00 pm.  Earlier in the day, we stocked on food staffs for the two days on the boat and even for Mpulungu where supplies were said to be scarce. Before departing, we also safely stored the Kigoma fish collection in a room provided by the guesthouse management.

 Earlier in the morning, I again called on the Fisheries offices where I met Mr. Kweka, the District Fisheries officer and other officials.  I introduced the ACP-EU project and my mission to the lake and was well received.  FishBase was an interesting subject, but since I was leaving in a few hours, we agreed on a short introduction into the database on my return from Mpulungu.  This, however, depend on the resumption of the District Administrator for whom Mr. Kweka was holding a brief.  In general, the officials were very receptive to the efforts to photograph fishes of the lake and make the pictures accessible for wider use.

 Mwongozo was teaming with passengers and merchandise (mainly sacks of dried Dagaa) destined for Zambia and onwards by road to the southern parts of the D R Congo.  After 44 hours journey, we arrived at Mpulungu on Friday afternoon, the 17th December.  Along the way, the boat made many stops at villages along the Tanzania part of the lake.  In each stop, small canoes sail to the boat bringing and taking people or goods.

 At Mpulungu, after the routine customs and immigration clearance, we took yet another boat to Lake Tanganyika lodge where we stayed.  The lodge, apparently, is best accessed by boat.

 Mpulungu : 18th to 31st December 1999

 Second day in Mpulungu started with a boat ride into the town where we visited fish markets.  Like Kigoma, fish on sale were mainly the commercial species of Dagaa, Kuhe and Megabuka with few cichlids.  We talked to fishermen that we were interested in non-commercial fishes for the purpose of photography.  To motivate the fishermen, we bought few specimens that seemed to exhibit different colour patterns.

Later, we visited a few of the large commercial fishing companies for general information and also inquire about possibilities of hiring a faster boat than the one we were using.  These companies included Andrea Fisheries, St. George Fisheries, Samaki Fisheries and Lake Fisheries. Mpulungu has the highest concentration of large-scale commercial fisheries in the whole lake.  The commercial fisheries relies mainly on Megabuka (Bukabuka in Mpulungu) which is frozen and transported to major cities in Zambia.  Two of the companies are also engaged in aquarium fisheries.

The next morning (Sunday), it was evident that fishermen heeded our request as they started to bring fishes to the lodge and this kept us busy preparing and taking photograph.

Monday,  20 December 1999

First thing on Monday morning, we called on the Fisheries Department to register our presence and secure their cooperation.  We met Mr. Mwape, the officer in-charge; Mpulungu Station, who it turned out was an alumnus of the ACP-EU training course in Namibia.  He was very welcoming and happy to learn that we were doing work to enrich FishBase. We discussed the project in general and his work since the training.  He did try in collaboration with a colleague from Kariba Dam to correct information about Zambia in FishBase, but was made to understand that the information could only be used after it was published.  This somewhat discouraged him.  I advised that he submits whatever information he accumulated to the FishBase team who would determine whether to publish or use directly. Mwape is also working on common names list, but since there are two main fishing communities in the area, he was not sure which particular language to concentrate on.  I refreshed his memory about the ranking procedure available in FishBase for common names, and it was then clear which language was to be ranked 1st or 2nd.  He showed us few fish photos he took in the past and I invited him to join us to learn better techniques from the visiting scientist.  He agreed to join us on Wed 22nd.  

After the visit to the Department, we called on Mr. Martin Pierre who served as a fisheries officer for a long time at Mpulungu before his recent retirement.  Pierre expressed concern about the present heavy fishing activity in the Zambian part of the lake, and observed that early sign of collapse was evidenced by declining catches.  

On Tuesday morning, we took a boat ride to a nearby fishing village where some fishermen use beach seining.  Although, we hoped to sample large collection, most of the catch, except for electric catfishes, was similar to catches from the hook and line fishermen.  

On Wednesday, Mwape and Rueben Shapula from the fisheries department joined us as promised and we all took off in their much faster departmental outboard to survey catches from rocky habitats.  Along the way, we stopped by the numerous small fishing canoes in the waters.  Any new species was collected and kept in an ice-filled cool box.  After about two hours moving from one fishing boat to the next, we managed to collect several new species that were taken back to the lodge.  Together with the fisheries team, specimens were quickly prepared and photographed.  Mwape and Shapula enjoyed the hands-on experience.  We were a FishBase team working together.  They participated in the preparation of specimens, spreading out fins to expose all details and after the specimens stiffened, they took part in photography.  We asked them to bring their cameras, but shared two rolls of films with them.  The fisheries team left late in the afternoon having acquired new skills and they promised to  contribute photos to FishBase in the future.  

The next day we were back to our routine of receiving, preparing and photographing different fish species brought in by fishermen.  In the afternoon, we visited a team from Kyoto University, Japan that has been working on Lake Tanganyika for the past three years. The group apparently has not heard of FishBase, and it gave me an opportunity to explain and demonstrate the database. The Japanese have over the years accumulated many photos and would be willing to share if contacted.  I got one recent publication by the group on “Obligate feeding of cichlid eggs by Caecomastacembelus zebratus in Lake Tanganyika” published in the Journal of Fish Biology (1999), 54, 450-459.  

Throughout the Christmas season, we continued to receive different fish species from more and more fishermen who have by now heard about the team at Lake Tanganyika Lodge.   Mr. Shapula from the local fisheries department, rejoined us bringing a 1½” departmental research gillnet.  He assisted in setting the net in the waters off the lodge, where it produced good results netting more of the bottom dwelling species.  

In the second week, fishermen from different localities continued to bring us fish.  But as the days went by, there was more repetition with only occasional new species.  Any new species was readily prepared, photographed and preserved.  On 27 December, we took a boat ride to Crocodile Island to once again sample fishes from rocky habitat.  The trip extended for almost three hours, but produced no new species.  

In the final two days at Mpulungu, (30/31st Dec), the main task involved packing the fish collection in readiness for the trip back to Kigoma.  Photographed specimens were separated from the general collection.  For the boat trip, specimens were left in formalin but the containers were tightly sealed.  

On Thursday afternoon, 30 December, I went to bid farewell to officials of the fisheries department who have been most welcoming and cooperative.  The visit provided another opportunity to explain the project to officials whom I did not meet on the first visit.  I also collected a letter authorizing the transportation of the fish collection back to Nairobi.

Mwongozo:  Return to Kigoma 31st December  1999

At two o’clock, Friday the eve of the new Millennium, we departed for Kigoma on Mwongozo.  Later that night, we joined other passengers in celebrating the birth of the new Millennium.  The boat arrived in Kigoma two days later on 2nd January, and we stayed at the NORAD guesthouse for another five (5) days during which the collections both from Kigoma and Mpulungu were repacked in readiness for the flight back to Nairobi.  This time, all the formalin had to be drained and containers tightly sealed and resealed in polyethylene bags.  During this period, we also made quick visits to fish markets for any new species that may come up. While visiting markets around Kigoma, I was able to record common (Swahili) names for few species (below) and urged the officials especially Mr. Kweka to compile such a list that could then be published with the assistance of the project.  The idea was well received.  Mr. Kweka had resumed back to his office, but could not immediately bring together all officials for the FishBase session.  I, nevertheless, had a good discussion about the project and FishBase with the few officials present.  

We left Kigoma for Nairobi on 7 January with a huge consignment of preserved fish.  After an overnight stay in Dar es Salaam we arrived in Nairobi the next day, 8th January.  The collections were deposited at NMK’s ichthyology department where they were unpacked and refilled with formalin.  In the meantime, all the exposed films from the trip were processed and slide pictures matched with the photo specimens.  It was, however, not possible to identify all the specimens and Tyson who had to leave for the USA carried the slides with him to finalize the identification and labeling before sending them to FishBase.  

In conclusion, this was a very successful trip.  It provided an opportunity for more fisheries practitioners in the region to get a chance to learn about the project and FishBase. Following this trip also, the FishBase photo collection will expand.  The National Museum of Kenya fish collection has also tremendously increased.  

  Appendix I

Common names (Kiswahili) recorded for some Lake Tanganyika species

  Scientific Name                           Common name

Boulengerochromis microlepis    Kuhe  
Grammatotria lemairii                 Nunge  
Mormyrus  longirostris                Kombe  
Auchenoglanis  occidentalis        Kavungwe
Clarias gariepinus                      Kambale  
Dinotopterus cunningtoni            Singe  
Malapterurus electricus              Nyika  
Limnothrisa miodon                    Lumba (Dagaa)  
Stolothrissa tanganicae               Karumba (Dagaa)  
Luciolates microlepis                  Sangalla (Keke)  
Luciolates stappersi                    Megabuka  
Tilapia nilotica                            Kihumbe  
Protepterus aethiopicus              Sompo (Kamongo)  
Brycinus  imberi                          Mere  
Brycinus (Alestes) rhodopleura   Numbo (Korongo)  
Tilapia tanganyikae                    Ngege  

Appendix II  
List Of Fish Collected And Photographed From Lake Tanganyika

1.     Afromastacembelus spp.  
2.     Alestes macrophthalmus  
3.     Altolamprologus calvus  
4.     Altolamprologus compressiceps  
5.    Aethiomastacembelus cunningtoni  
6.    Aethiomastacembelus ellipsifer  
7.     Aethiomastacembelus platysoma  
8.     Astatotilapia burtoni  
9.     Auchenoglanis occidentalis  
10.  Aulonocranus dewindti  
11.  Barbus peilegrini  
12.  Barbus tropidolepis  
13.  Barbus spp.  
14.  Barilius spp.  
15.  Bathybates faciates  
16.  Bathybates graueri  
17.  Bathybates ferox  
18.  Bathybates hornii  
19.  Bathybates leo  
20.  Bathybates minor  
21.  Bathybates vittatus  
22.  Benthochromis tricoti  
23.  Boulengerochromis microlepis  
24.  Caecomastacembelus moori  
25.  Callochromis macrops macrops  
26.  Callochromis melanostigma  
27.  Callochromis pleurospilus  
28.  Cardiopharynx schoutedeni  
29.  Chalinochromis brichardi  
30.  Chalinochromis popelini  
31.  Chryichthys sianenna  
32.  Cyphopharynx furcifer  
33.  Cyphotilapia frontosa  
34.  Ctenochromis briei  
35.  Dinotepterus cunnigtoni  
36.  Ectodus descamsii  
37.  Enantiopus melanogenys  
38.  Eretmodus cyanostictus  
39.  Gnathochromis pfefferi  
40.  Gnathochromis permaxillaris  
41.  Grammatotria lemarie  
42.  Haplochromis benthicola  
43.  Haplotaxodon microlepis  
44.  Haplotaxodon tricoti  
45.  Hemibates stenosoma  
46.  Hippopotamyrus dicorhynchus  
47.  Hippopotamyrus grahami  
48.  Julidochromis dickfeldi  
49.  Julidochromis marlier  
50.   Julidochromis ornatus  
51.   Julidochromis regani  
52.   Lamprichthys tanganicanus  
53.   Labeo spp.  
54.   Lamprichthys tanganicanus  
55.   Lates mariae  
56.   Lates stapersii  
57.   Lates microlepis  
58.   Lepidiolamprologus attenuatus  
59.   Lepidiolamprologus cunnigtoni   
60.   Lepidiolamprologus perfundicola   
61.   Lepidiolamprologus kendalli   
62.   Lestradea perspicax  
63.   Limnochromis abeele   
64.   Limnochromis auritus  
65.   Limnochromis staneri  
66.   Limnothrissa miodon  
67.   Limnotilapia dardenii  
68.   Lobochilotes labiatus  
69.   Malapterurus electricus  
70.   Marcusenius stanleyanus  
71.   Marcusenius spp.  
72.   Mormyrus anguilloides  
73.   Mormyrus longirostis  
74.   Neolamprologus brevis  
75.   Neolamprologus brichardi  
76.   Neolamprologus callipterus  
77.   Neolamprologus christyi  
78.   Neolamprologus crassus  
79.   Neolamprologus elongatus  
80.   Neolamprologus falcicula  
81.   Neolamprologus fasciatus  
82.   Neolamprologus furcifer  
83.   Neolamprologus lemariae  
84.   Neolamprologus leleupi  
85.   Neolamprologus meeli  
86.   Neolamprologus moori  
87.   Neolamprologus modestus  
88.   Neolamprologus mondabu  
89.   Neolamprologus multifasciatus  
90.   Neolamprologus niger  
91.    Neolamprologus obscurus  
92.    Neolamprologus olivaceous  
93.    Neolamprologus petricola  
94.    Neolamprologus pleuromaculatus  
95.    Neolamprologus prochilus  
96.    Neolamprologus sexfasciatus  
97.     Neolamprologus savoryi  
98.     Neolamprologus tetracanthus  
99.     Ophthalmotilapia boops  
100.      Ophthalmotilapia ventralis ventralis  
101.      Oreochromis aureus  
102.      Oreochromis leucostictus  
103.      Oreochromis pangani  
104.      Oreochromis niloticus  
105.      Oreochromis tanganicae  
106.      Oreochromis spp.  
107.      Orthochromis malagaraziensis  
108.      Petrochromis famula  
109.      Perissodus microlepis  
110.      Perissodus multidentatus  
111.      Perissodus paradoxus  
112.      Perissodus staeleni  
113.      Perissodus spp  
114.      Perissodus spp  
115.      Phyilonemus filinemus  
116.      Reganochromis calliurus  
117.      Sarotherodon nilotica  
118.      Schilbe mystus  
119.      Simochromis babaulti  
120.      Simochromis  diagramma  
121.      Simochromis spp  
122.      Simochromis spp.  
123.      Synodontis eurystomus  
124.      Synodontis dhonti  
125.      Synodontis multipunctatus  
126.      Synodontis nigromaculatus  
127.      Synodontis polli  
128.      Tanganicodus irsacea  
129.      Tanganikallabes mortiauxi  
130.      Telotrematocara spp.  
131.      Telmatochromis vittatus  
132.      Telmatochromis dhonti  
133.      Trematocara caparti  
134.      Trematocara macrostoma  
135.      Trematocara unimaculatus  
136.      Trematocara variabile  
137.      Trematocara stigmaticum  
138.      Triglachromis otostigma  
139.      Tropheus duboisi  
140.      Tylochromis polylepis  
141.      Varicorhinus leleupanus  
142.      Varicorhinus tanganicae  
143.      Xenotilapia melanogenys  
144.      Xenotilapia sima  
145.      Xenotilapia nigrolabiata  
146.      Xenotilapia ochrogenys  
147.      Xenotilapia longispinus  
148.      Xenotilapia boulengeri  
149.      Xenotilapia burtoni  
150.      Xenotilapia spiloptera  
151.      Xenotilapia spp.  

Appendix  III  

List of Key Contacts

  (1) Dr. H. Ochi
        Kyoto University
        Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa
        Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502
  (2) Dr. Robert H. Lindley
        Fishing Practices Facilitator
        Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project
        P.O. Box 1119
        Bujumbura, Burundi
  (3)  Staff at the Fisheries Department
        Natural Resources Department
        P.O. Box 1250
        Kigoma, Tanzania

        Head of Department
        D. O. Z. Kweka
        District Fisheries Officer
   (4) Staff at the Mpulungu Fisheries Research Station
        Ministry of Agriculture Foods and Fisheries
        P.O.  Box 55
        Mpulungu, Zambia

        Head of Department
        L. M. Mwape
        Senior Fisheries Research Officer

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